A 10-year old is not likely to call animal control on his parents. It's hard enough to get kids to report their own abuse, because at that age, they have no experience of the world - they think whatever they've lived with is normal.
He may not even have enough "people food" to go around, let alone give his to the dog. People who abuse or neglect animals are often pretty abusive/neglectful to children as well. I think you are vastly overestimating the abilities of a 10 year old to take independent steps to protect an animal, when he is not even old or large enough to protect himself.