My older cat, Parmie (now coming up on 2 1/2) was 1 1/2 when I decided to get her a playmate. Parmie is an extremely loving cat - when she wants to be. She's pretty much a one woman cat (though she has finally accepted my DH!). At the time, I was single and not home very often (full time grad student with almost full time outside job) so Parmie was very lonely when we moved to a new apt. (Previously, I had lived with a roommate that had two dogs. Parmie loved the dogs). Parmie is the epitome of "fickle cat".
She was NOT pleased when I brought home a tiny little ball of fluff (Brie). (2 months old).
Initially, I had Brie stay in the little cat carrier for a couple hours. Parmie came over and they smelled each other. Brie was excited, she wanted to play (I swear that this cat is a confused puppy). Parmie, after an hour of smelling, started yowling and hissing and promptly went to hide in the box spring under my bed for 3 days, hissing whenever I'd go over by the bed.
After those couple hours, I let Brie out of the box, and she pranced around happy as a clam, smelling everything she could. She adjusted quite well.
After those first 3 nerve-wracking days of Parmie hating everything (and she had NEVER hissed at me before this point) something happened, and they started to get along.
Nowadays, we have since moved to a new place, they are besties. They sleep together, play together, and Parmie has become extremely maternal to Brie - think Simba's mom giving him a bath from the Lion King.
I have this theory that an ornery cat will do better with a young kitten, because once over the initial shock, they become maternal. But you have to take your time in introducing them - no NOT force them to smell each other. Let them get used to the scents and so on.
I have a single litterbox and just a single bowl of water and food out for the two Katzen, and they are totally fine sharing all of those things. Actually - I think this is kind of weird - but they can sit and eat their crunchies together without any hissing or fights.