This should help you identify the nuts:http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ecoph8.htm
The top picture shows the most common (walnut, pecan, brazil, hazlenut, almond, etc.)
As for a recipe? Honestly? I just enjoy shelling the nuts and eating them as you go. Kind of like a fun treat. Put on a good movie, grab an extra bowl for the shells, add a few friends and a nice bottle of wine. You can even serve some sliced cheese and grapes for a scrumptious appetizer.
Then the fun begins.
Try to deshell the nut so that the meat comes out in one piece. Brazil nuts are the most difficult to crack.
Yes. Nuts in the shell can be frozen for long term keeping, but they do keep for quite a while (at least a month -- I usually don't have them around much longer than that, so I can't tell you how long they keep.)
In fact, rumor has it (I've never tried it) freezing the nuts makes them easier to crack. Here's a site with tips for mass-cracking if you're going to use the nuts for baking: http://www.ehow.com/how_10768_crack-nuts.html
(eta: I've never tried this method, but it sounded like good info.)
Softly Spoken -- please don't take this wrong, but since you seem to be a shell-on-nut novice, here's a variety of nutcrackers if you don't have one (or three for a party;)): http://www.amazon.com/s/?ie=UTF8&keywords=nutcrackers+for+nuts&tag=googhydr-20&index=garden&hvadid=16744389444&hvpos=1t2&hvexid=&hvnetw=g&hvrand=929565281521400651&hvpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=b&ref=pd_sl_5y04wyfvgi_b
I use the "Classic" with the picks -- the picks help you dig out the meat.