It's really interesting to see that the traditional Cornish pasty has made it over to the US!
A place near us has started selling traditional miner's pasties - cornish one end, apple the other for dessert.
For my cornish pasties I use all butter for the pastry - I know traditionally lard is used but I find lard pastry gets all fall-apart-y on me.
200g plain flour
touch of salt and pepper
2 egg yolks
250g minced beef or diced braising/stewing steak
One medium-sized white potatoe
1 white onion
2 cloves garlic
1/2 pint liquid - either beef stock or half beef stock half stout
1 diced carrot
A handful of peas
Any other winter/root vegetables you have lying around, diced - swede, turnip and parsnip all go down pretty well
A little basil and rosemary
So, 110g butter, 200g plain flour, little salt and pepper, mashed up with cold hands until it forms a kind-of dough. Then knead in an egg yolk to make a proper pliant pastry dough and stick in the fridge.
If I'm doing it properly at this point I already have about half a pint of beef stock made from bones - otherwise packaged beef stock is fine.
Cook 1-2 diced white onions until browning, then add around 500g minced beef (or diced braising steak for extra yum) to brown until it's sticking to the pan. Add the garlic, diced, at the same time as the beef. Pour in the stock (or for a decadent British flavour, half stock half stout) and herbs. Let this simmer for 45-minutes to an hour, adding the vegetables at the appropriate points for them: potato nearly straight away, carrot and other root vegetables not long after, peas near the end.
Do this uncovered and stir occaisionally, more often as the liquid reduces.
Salt and pepper as you're going but bear in mind you will be reducing the liquid down.
At this point you ought to have very little liquid left. The key to getting a cornish to work is making sure the filling is really quite dry; you ought to be able to spoon it like cookie dough. If not, gently heat it to reduce a little more, or consider adding corn flour or gravy granules to thicken it.
Let the mixture cool while you sort out the pastry. It should be rolled pretty thick (this recipe makes one 'sharer' cornish for 2-3 people or 2 individual ones), and in a kind of fat oval shape.
Spoon the *cool* mixture into the middle, pull up the sides till they meet and squish it together with your fingers to create that signature cornish pasty ridge on top.
Glaze it with the remaining egg yolk, and stick on a greased baking tray for about 20 minutes at 160 Celsius.
That one never goes wrong for me except if I try to get fancy and use lard in the dough or put the mixture in when it's too wet or not cool.