For Ontario, you can get your learner's permit, called a G1, anytime after you turn 16 by writing a test. This allows you to drive with a licensed driver in the front seat beside you. There are a number of restrictions on where and when you can drive. Then you take a road test and get your graduated license, called a G2. There are still a few restrictions with this license. You have to have it for at least 8 months before you do another road test to get your final license, G. There are other licenses you can get which allow you to drive other kinds of vehicles like transports. But you have to have a G license before you can get those.
You do a vision test before you get your G1.
And now you have a license, unless it is revoked by a doctor or due to court charges, until you turn 80. At age 80, you have to take a seminar and get a vision test. You used to have to do a written test, too, but now apparently, they do a couple of non-computerized co-ordination/reaction time type tests. If you do fine on those, your license is renewed for 2 years. If you don't, you might be required to take a road test or go to your doctor for a consultation. Every two years, you repeat the process.
Our addresses are on our licenses so if you move, you have to get a new one. I think you have 6 weeks to do that. Otherwise, your license gets renewed every 5 years, with a new picture. But there is no vision test.