The gun thing might not be as inaccurate as you might think. Recently I watched Ken Burns The West documentary. It was fascinating and I distinctly remember newspapers of the time telling people off for carrying guns in public in town. Of course,I'm could be wrong but it is something I remember from the documentary.
I was too young to watch when Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman originally came out. I recently started watching the show on Amazon Prime and, well, the anachronisms are occasionally making it difficult. At first they were easy to justify and live with, as I really wanted to enjoy the show. Colorado Springs didn't exist until the 1870's? And didn't have a saloon? Oh that's all right, moves the story along. A town speaking against a teacher using corporal punishment? Wrong time for that. I love Halloween as much as anyone, but the mid 1800's pioneers didn't celebrate it much, certainly not with guising and candy. My most recently watched episode, I just don't see a frontier Colorado town voting to ban all carrying of guns within city limits.
Oh! And on the medical front. Appendectomies were not a thing yet, in fact surgery as we know it was both uncommon and extremely risky. Forget a radical mastectomy, that was also a couple decades ahead of its time.
By five or six decades at least, even.
Many of the WORST towns had a no-gun policy. Cattle towns, mainly, such as Dodge City. You get a few dozen cowboys in off the trail, headed for the saloons, you bet a smart sheriff would have the rule that everyone checks their gun in at his office upon arriving in town. The rule might not be year round (only during the cattle drive season), but it might be easier to just have everyone check in his gun. I imagine it became a bit of a social event (like picking up your mail at the Post Office is today in small towns), being able to get the news from the sheriff and deputies. And it definitely made law enforcement easier, because if you saw a group of men with guns, you KNEW they were up to no good. It wasn't from any anti-gun philosophy, just the very rational opinion that some places ought to be gun-free zones.
The American Association of Microbiology was founded in 1899 with 59 members. Pasteur and Lister were doing their work on microbes causing disease in the 1850s and 1860s. So it's possible that Quinn might have read an article in the 1870s, as the show depicted her keeping in correspondence with doctors in Boston, who were as up to date on medical knowledge as any in the US at that time.