"New question(s) . . . do snowboards have boot/latches like snow skis?"
Yes, snowboards have bindings like skis.
"I know water skis have foot holds/shoes . . . do some surfboards have the same thing?"
No, they don't. Water skis need footholds because the person on the skis is being pulled forward so the skis would be pulled off backward if they weren't attached. Surfboards are pushed from behind by the wave and the rider stands on it like a platform, so they don't have to be attached to the board.
"Additional question, if you watch the video: What the heck is that person hanging on to? . . . the person on snow skis at the very beginning and shown several times throughout the video. It looks like a long pole, I'm just wondering if it's attached to anything."
The camera that's recording the video you're watching is on the end of the pole.